References in the text

In the text, refer to the author(s) names(s) (without initials, unless there are two authors with the same name) and year of publication. Et al should be used when citing works by more than two authors. Details of personal communications are included with the citation in the text, and not added to the reference list. Publications which have not yet appeared are given a probable year of publication and should be checked at proof stage on author query sheet.


Since Paterson (1983) has shown that… This is in results attained later (Kramer et al., 1984:16). Results have been reported (Robinson, 1989, personal communication) which suggest…

Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be identified with a, b, c (e.g. 1974a, 1990b) closed up to the year. If there are two authors for a publication, put both names separated by ‘and’ (not &). If there are more than two authors, put the name of the first author with et al to follow. References to material only on the internet must be given in brackets in the text, not in the reference list. The full URL must be given.


Reference list

References should be placed in alphabetical order of authors. Et al should not be used in the reference list: give names of all the authors. Examples of correct forms of references for alphabetical style:

Papers in journal

Adam, C., Chambas, G., Guillaumont, P., Guillaumont Jeanneney, S., and Gunning, J.W. (2004) Performance-based conditionality: A European perspective. World Development 32(6): 1059–1070.

Otto, L. (1976) Social integration and the status-attainment process. The American Journal of Sociology 81(6): 1360–1383.

Schiller, N.G. and Levitt, P. (2004) Conceptualizing simultaneity: A transnational social field perspective on society. International Migration Review 38(3): 1002–1039.

Papers, Advance Online Publication

Minniti, M. (2010) Female entrepreneurship and economic activity. The European Journal of Development Research advance online publication 13 May, doi: 10.1057/ejdr.2010.18.


Carothers, T. (2006) Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment.

Jensen, E. and Heller, T. (eds.) (2003) Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Kaplan, R.S. and Morton, D.P. (2001) The Strategy Focused Organization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Chapters in books

Faist, T. (2004) The Border-Crossing Expansion of Social Space: Concepts, Questions and Topics. In: T. Faist and E. Özveren (eds) Transnational Social Spaces: Agents, Networks and Institutions. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, pp. 1–36.

Prime, P.B. (1994) China’s Economic Progress: Is it Sustainable? In: W. Joseph (ed.) China Briefing: The Contradictions of Change. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 51–78.

Conference papers (published)

Harley, N.H. (1981) Radon Risk Models. In: A.R. Knight and B. Harrad, (eds) Indoor Air and Human Health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 29–31 October, Knoxville, TN. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 69–78.

Conference papers (unpublished)

Kohli, A. (2004) Politics of Economic Growth in India: 1980–2000. Paper presented at a conference on State Politics in India in the 1990s; 16–17 December, New Delhi, India.


Young, W.R. (1981) Effects of different tree species on soil properties in central New York. MSc thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Newspaper/magazine articles (with/without named author)

Webster, B. (2008) Record bonus for Network Rail chief, despite Christmas chaos. The Times, 6 June: p1.

Economist (2005) The mountain man and the surgeon. 24 December, pp. 24–26.


British spelling is preferred although any consistent spelling style is acceptable. The Harvard style of referencing should be used, which entails references in the text in the form (name, date), and a full alphabetical bibliography at the end of the text. Use single quotation marks with double within if needed.


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