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Palgrave Macmillan

International Organizations and Internal Conditionality

Making Norms Matter

ISBN 9781137305480
Publication Date January 2014
Formats Hardcover Ebook (EPUB) Ebook (PDF) 
Publisher Palgrave Macmillan

In retrospect, NATO and EU enlargements can be viewed as easy; they admitted states that wanted to be involved and were lavishly rewarded. In contrast, this study explores the harder politics waged by the much larger regional organizations, the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). These organizations lack material incentives or instruments of coercion, instead having to work on the basis of shared values. They also face a variety of threats from recalcitrant members. In this book, Fawn uniquely uses internal conditionality to explain how these organizations have cleverly and subtly responded to such difficulties.
Drawing on interviews in a range of post-communist countries and with practitioners inside and outside the organizations, the diverse case studies in this book examine issues of conflict, democratization, the death penalty, rewarding high office and retaining institutional membership. Fawn explores how international organizations which lack powers of compulsion can respond to threatening member-states and offers practical lessons for the international promotion of norms.
This book will appeal to those interested in how international underdogs work and win in tough circumstances, as well as scholars of International Relations, Central and Eastern European Studies, Post-Soviet Studies and European Security.

Rick Fawn is a Senior Lecturer in the School of International Relations at the University of St Andrews, UK. He has recently edited Georgia: War and Revolution and Globalising the Regional, Regionalising the Global and is co-author of Historical Dictionary of the Czech State.

1. International Organizations, Internal Conditionality
2. The Birth of Internal Conditionality: The Conception and Evolution of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
3. International Election Observation Missions: The Deepest Objections and Greatest Resilience of Internal Conditionality?
4. The Council of Europe and the Abolition of the Death Penalty: From External to Internal Conditionality and the Success of Norms over Interests
5. Success in the Toughest of Cases: The Normative Surprise over Chechnya from Internal Conditionality
6. Tajikistan and the OSCE: The Subtlest Victory of Internal Conditionality
7: The Kazakhstani Chairmanship of the OSCE: Internal Conditionality and the Risks of Political Appeasement
8. Making Norms Matter


"Well researched and cogently reasoned, this book will undoubtedly be widely read and will make a lasting contribution to the theory as well as the practice of democratization and human rights promotion [...] Most of the IR literature on norm diffusion has focused on transnational networks and argumentation with officials at the national level. Fawn goes beyond this scholarship in a very important way: by inquiring into the processes whereby IOs, transnational civil society and the state engage one another. In order to do so he advances the concept of 'internal conditionality,' or the means through which normative influence is exerted by IOs." - Douglas Blum, Providence College, USA
'It is a common error to give credit only to NATO and the European Union for the relative stability and good governance European nations enjoy today. Wider, ostensibly weaker groupings like the Council of Europe and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) have also striven since Cold War times to spread Western standards to a growing range of neighbouring or newly-created states. This book for once gives these organizations their due, looking in detail at cases where they have applied overt and/or subtle pressures to remedy government abuses - with results more significant than many might expect.'- Alyson Bailes, University of Iceland
"Rick Fawn has delivered the defining study of the power politics, normative struggles and subtle tools of influence that characterize value-based organizations like the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Fawn's theoretical precision, fascinating cases and eye for the unexpected turn reveal both how cynical states subvert the principled commitments of international organizations and how tactically astute bureaucrats and like-minded allies can counter their challenges. International Organizations and Internal Conditionality is a must-read for scholars and international policymakers engaged with the broader question of how regional organizations maintain normative commitments in the absence of hard material incentives." - Alexander Cooley, Columbia University, USA
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