Although much has been written about Japanese economic development, less attention is given to its social development, and still less to gender related issues. The book analyses various aspects of Japanese historical and current experiences. It covers themes such as economic development and gender disparities, population policy, rural livelihood programs, rural income generation work and female empowerment, female political participation, sharing of domestic work, discourses on the modern family, state and gender, and women in factories. Each chapter is written not to analyze the Japanese case per se but in a comparative perspective with developing countries. The common message is a call for the creation of an interactive space to exchange individual experiences and insights between different societies in order to formulate a more powerful gender and development agenda in each society.