Pay inequalities between women and men are a key issue for labour market policy. This book provides new evidence on the magnitude and sources of these pay inequalities across countries. Particular attention is devoted to job access and workplace practices, promotions and wage growth, sectoral affiliation and rent-sharing, and unobserved heterogeneity and dynamics. Empirical findings, reported by leading experts, cover a large number of European countries and New Zealand. These findings, based micro data, are of particular relevance for academics, policymakers, governments advisors and journalists.