This book examines the clash between British Indian external policy and that of an expansionist Imperial metropole in the 'western approaches' to India. The major spheres of India's overseas interest - the Persian Gulf, the Middle East, Aden, Somaliland, Zanzibar, and East Africa - are examined through a series of case studies and an analysis made of the motives behind, and nature of, Indian sub-imperialism and British imperialism. The responses of the Indian system to different levels of Imperial pressure are explored together with the development of metropolitan strategies and structures for co-ordinated interaction with the Indian sphere. The extraordinary opportunities for Indian sub-imperial expansion during the Great War form a particular focus. The changing nature of British rule in India and its impact on foreign affairs is also considered, particularly in respect of the influence of Indian external policy on domestic politics and the process of reform in the twentieth century.