Are TESOL professionals now fairly seen as agents of a new English-speaking empire? Or, if they wish to distance themselves from this role, are there ways of working and living that would make this differentiation clear? Are English speakers set to become the only educated monolinguals in the world and, if so, should we see this as a sign of their affluence or their impoverishment? How many learners of English perceive the major informing culture of the language to be predominantly one of individual depravity and social disintegration? For those who do, how should teachers respond? An international group of authors put forward their differing analyses of the contexts with which they are most familiar, along with proposals for the development of TESOL in a world where military invasion and occupation have been added to the previous mix of globalized economic hegemony and cultural influence exercised by the USA and its allies.