Since the early 1990s, China has witnessed an influx of international NGOs, many of which have Christianity as their foundation. The presence of international Christian agencies in China, however, is not new. Christian missionaries went to China in the age of imperialism. Historians argue the work of missionaries was inextricably linked to the idea of a 'civilizing mission'. This book critically assesses the idea of a Christian 'civilizing mission' over time, and explores the relevance of the idea to the contemporary context. By examining the non-Han people's perception of international Christian agencies, this book advocates the importance of engagement through in-depth dialogue between international Christian NGOs and ethnic communities.