Manuscript Style

Submissions should be in English. Only the title of the paper should appear on the first page of the manuscript. All authors should obtain assistance, if necessary, in the editing of their papers for correct spelling and use of English grammar. MEL publishing standards are very high and technically good papers are often rejected due to poor writing style and/or command of the English language. Please use UK English spelling throughout.

Articles should normally not exceed an all-inclusive MS-Word count of 8000 words, be written clearly and concisely, and avoid unnecessary jargon. Articles must be preceded by an abstract of not more than 200 words, and six keywords suitable for indexing and online search purposes. The abstract should set out clearly the issues to be investigated; the paper's contribution to existing knowledge; the methodology used, and the main conclusions(s). Preferably the abstract should be written in non-technical language.

It is essential that the article concludes with a section where the author(s) summarise their main conclusions, possible need for further research, as well as the potential impact of the article on business, government or policy-making. To the extent possible, this section should be written in a way that is broadly understandable to the non-specialist.


Authors are expected to be aware of, and make reference to, relevant works published earlier in MEL. Abstracts of earlier works can be accessed here.

A running head of not more than 30 characters should be supplied for papers with longer titles.

Sections and subsections should be clearly distinguished but should NOT be numbered.
Papers must be written without the use of footnotes. Endnotes should be limited to the absolute minimum as they can be disruptive to the natural flow of the argument.

The MS-Word Equation Editor should be used for mathematical expressions.

Figures which contain only textual rather than diagrammatic information should be designated as tables. Figures and tables should be numbered separately and consecutively, and presented at the end of the typescript. Their position in the text should be indicated in the manuscript. Tables should have a short title above, and figures a legend below. If more information must be included, this should appear as a 'note' below the table or figure.

Authors are requested to follow our instructions on how to prepare and submit their figures, for more information see the link below.

References in the text

The whole citation should follow the Harvard style, enclosed within parentheses (author surname, year) if not a natural part of the surrounding sentence; the year should be enclosed within parentheses if the names do form a natural part of the surrounding sentence. Citations of works by two authors should have 'and' (not an ampersand) between the names. Citations of works by three or more authors should have the first author followed by et al in italics with no trailing stop.

Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be identified with a, b, c (e.g. 2008a, 2008b) closed up to the year.

Personal communications should be listed as such where they are cited in the text, and not listed in the references.


Since Paterson (1983) has shown that... This is in results attained later (Kramer, 1984). Results have been reported (Don Graham, 1989, personal communication).
Articles not yet published should show 'forthcoming' in place of the year (in both the reference and the citation). 'In press' should be used in place of the volume, issue and page range details.


Sharp Parker, A.M. (forthcoming) Cyberterrorism: An examination of the preparedness of the North Carolina local law enforcement. Security Journal, in press.

List of References

References are placed in alphabetical order of authors. Users of Endnote referencing software can download an Endnote style file at the link below. Examples of correct forms of references for alphabetical style:


Slovic, P. (2000) The Perception of Risk. London: Earthscan Publications.

Edited volume

Nye Jr, J.S., Zelikow, P.D. and King D.C. (eds.) (1997) Why People Don't Trust Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Chapter in book

Flora, P. and Alber, J. (1981) Modernization, democratization, and the development of the welfare state. In: P. Flora and A.J. Heidenheimer (eds.) The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Books, pp. 17-34.

Article in journal

Thompson, K., Griffith, E. and Leaf, P. (1990) A historical review of the Madison model of community care. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41(6): 21-35.

Article in newspaper

Webster, B. (2008) Record bonus for Network Rail chief, despite Christmas chaos. The Times, 6 June: p1.
Newspaper or magazine article (without a named author)
Economist (2005) The mountain man and the surgeon. 24 December, pp. 24-26.

Article online

Iannone, F. (2012) A model optimizing the port-hinterland logistics of containers: The case of the Campania region in Southern Italy. Maritime Economics & Logistics, advance online publication 5 January, doi:10.1057/mel.2011.16.

Other online resource

Green Party. (2005) Greens call for attack on asylum 'push factors'. Green Party report, 4 March,, accessed 9 March 2005.

Conference proceedings

Sapin, A. (ed.) (1985) Health and the Environment. Proceedings of the Conference on Biological Monitoring Methods for Industrial Chemicals; 30-31 March 1984, Chicago, IL. Chicago: American Toxological Association.

Conference paper

Harley, N.H. (1981) Radon risk models. In: A.R. Knight and B. Harrad, (eds.) Indoor Air and Human Health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 29-31 October, Knoxville, TN. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp.69-78.

Papers/talks presented at a conference but not published

Martin, S. (2003) An exploration of factors which have an impact on the vocal performance and vocal effectiveness of newly qualified teachers and lecturers. Paper presented at the Pan European Voice Conference; 31 August, Graz, Austria.


Young, W.R. (1981) Effects of different tree species on soil properties in central New York. MSc thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Research papers/reports/working papers

Bloom., G. et al (2005) Poverty Reduction During Democratic Transition: The Malawi Social Action Fund 1996-2001. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. IDS Research Report no. 56.


Bond, S. A., Hwang, S., Lin, Z. and Vandell, K. (2005) Marketing Period Risk in a Portfolio Context: Theory and Empirical Estimates from the UK Commercial Real Estate Market. Cambridge, UK: Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge (mimeo).


Blair, A. (2003) Britain in the World. Speech to FCO Leadership Conference. London, 7 January.