Illustrations, tables and figures

Each illustration, table and figure should be uploaded separately (and be numbered for identification) and their position within the text clearly indicated by referring to 'Table 1' or 'Figure 1', never to 'the table below' or 'the above figure'. Provide typed captions (including sources and acknowledgements) at the end of the main document. The typesetter will fit the tables and figures as near to the relevant reference as possible.

Tables should be prepared with the minimum use of horizontal rules (usually three are sufficient) and avoiding vertical rules. It is important to provide clear copy for figures (not photocopies or faxes) which can be reproduced by the printer and do not require redrawing.


Notes should be avoided (they can often be taken into the text itself, sometimes in brackets). If notes are deemed necessary, however, they should be kept to a minimum and placed at the end of the article. Footnotes should be avoided. Notes should be indicated with superscript letters. Distinguish between notes, which elaborate or explain a point in the text, and references to sources and other published material.


The Harvard reference system is used in this journal. In the text give the name of the author (use et al. for three or more authors), the date of publication and, following quoted material, the page reference - e.g. 'Many composers have attempted to return to this state of childhood' (Swanwick, 1988, p.56); several authors have noted this trend (Smith, 1970; Jones and Cook, 1968; Dodds et al., 1973).

The date of publication cited must be the date of the source referred to; when using a republished book, a translation or a modern version of an older edition, however, the date of the original publication may also be given, e.g. Orwell (2002[1930]). Where there are two or more works by one author in the same year, these should be distinguished by using 1980a, 1980b, etc.

The reference list should include every work cited in the text. Please ensure that dates, spelling and titles used in the text are consistent with those listed in the reference list.

The content and form of the reference list should conform to the following examples. Please note that page numbers are required for articles, both place of publication and name of publisher should be given for books and, where relevant, translator and date of first publication should be noted. Do not use et al. in the reference list; list each author's surname and initials.

The following are sample references for different types of work. Please note the order of the items and the punctuation.

Caiazza, A., 2002. Mothers and Soldiers: Gender, Citizenship, and Civil Society in Contemporary Russia. London and New York: Routledge.

Sahadeo, J. and Zanca, R., eds., 2007. Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Hunt, J., 1975. Women and liberation. Marxism Today, 19(11), pp.326-337.

Giles, M.V., 2014. Introduction: an alternative mother-centred economic paradigm. In M.V. Giles, ed. Mothering in the Age of Neoliberalism. Bradford, ON: Demeter Press, pp.1-30

Online references

If an online reference has a title, a named author (including organisations), and a date of publication, and is a piece published in an online journal, newspaper, blog, organisational website or online publication (such as OpenDemocracy or The Conversation), it should be cited in the text in the same way as an equivalent printed reference, and included in the list of references at the end of the article, e.g.:

Kandawasvika-Nhundu, R., 2009. The gender of democracy matters. openDemocracy, 7 April. Available at: [last accessed 12 May 2011].

Fisher, C., 2012. Reflections from Rio+20 part 2: 'Women working in development organizations are not allowed to be feminists'. LSE Blogs - Engenderings: Critical engagements with culture and society, 13 August. Available at: [last accessed 13 August 2012].

Bedford, K., 2012. Gender WDR: Limits, gaps, and fudges. Bretton Woods Project, 8 February. Available at: [last accessed 20 January 2015].

All other online references (e.g. web forums, social media sites, links to videos or images) should be published as footnotes and not with references, and should include the name of the piece (if applicable) and the name of the website, as well as the link. E.g.:

  1. SlutWalk Toronto, 'About',, last accessed 13 February 2014.
  2. Twitter post,, last accessed 13 February 2014.
    NB - if the reference is to a video or image, it is not necessary to name the website hosting the video. E.g.:
  3. 'The girl effect: I dare you to see I am the answer',*puE, last accessed 13 Feburary 2014.

In all cases, a 'last accessed' date should always be included.