Submissions must be in English. Manuscripts must

  • not include any information that directly or indirectly identifies the author(s),
  • be double-spaced throughout (including notes and references, but excluding tables that would otherwise span across more than one page),
  • use 12-point Times New Roman font for the main body of the text,
  • have page numbers at the bottom of each page,
  • have a 2.5 cm or 1 inch margin all around,
  • be formatted for A4 or US letter size paper, and
  • have a minimum length of 6,000 words and a maximum length of 10,000 words (all inclusive).

To help reduce the workload of our authors, first submissions are NOT bound by the below formatting rules on illustrations, tables, and references but may follow their own formatting rules instead. Authors of accepted papers need to format their final submissions in line with journal rules.


Keep textual notes to a minimum, indicate them with superscript numbers, and provide the note text as a list at the end of the article before the references. Please do not use footnotes.

References in the text

The whole citation should follow the 15th Edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. This utilises citations enclosed within parentheses (author surname, year) if not a natural part of the surrounding sentence. The year should be enclosed within parentheses if the names do form a natural part of the surrounding sentence. A detailed guide to how to reference specific types of works is given below. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, please click the link for Chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.


One author
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
(Pollan 2006, 99–100)

Two or more authors:
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf.
(Ward and Burns 2007, 52)

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):
(Barnes et al. 2010)

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author:
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Lattimore 1951, 91–92)

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author:
García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.
(García Márquez 1988, 242–55)

Chapter or other part of a book

Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Kelly 2010, 77)

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)

Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).
(Cicero 1986, 35)

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle edition.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Austen 2007)
(Kurland and Lerner, chap. 10, doc. 19)

Journal article

Article in a print journal
In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.

Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104:439–58.
(Weinstein 2009, 440)

Article in an online journal

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.
(Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)

Article in a newspaper or popular magazine

Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.

Mendelsohn, Daniel. 2010. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27. Accessed February 28, 2010.
(Mendelsohn 2010, 68)
(Stolberg and Pear 2010)

Book review

Kamp, David. 2006. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, Sunday Book Review.
(Kamp 2006)

Thesis or dissertation

Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.
(Choi 2008)

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.
(Adelman 2009)


A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text (“As of July 19, 2008, the McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website . . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation.

Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11.
McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19.
(Google 2009)
(McDonald’s 2008)

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, cite the blog post there but mention comments in the text only. (If an access date is required, add it before the URL; see examples elsewhere in this guide.)
Posner, Richard. 2010. “Double Exports in Five Years?” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21.
(Posner 2010)

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010, John Doe revealed . . .”), and they are rarely listed in a reference list. In parenthetical citations, the term personal communication (or pers. comm.) can be used.
(John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010)
or (John Doe, pers. comm.)

Item in a commercial database

For items retrieved from a commercial database, add the name of the database and an accession number following the facts of publication. In this example, the dissertation cited above is shown as it would be cited if it were retrieved from ProQuest’s database for dissertations and theses.
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).


Use either UK or US spellings consistently throughout. For UK spellings take as a guide the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors; Websters Collegiate for US spellings. UK spellings will therefore prefer -ize to -ise, as a verb ending (e.g. realize, specialize, recognize, etc.).

Transcription conventions

Names, phrases and words from languages using the Roman alphabet (e.g. English, Spanish, Pilipino) should be unchanged. In the case of Vietnamese, the standard orthography should be adapted. Authors should not use tone marks (a in preference to a, á, à, ã, ả, ạ), and use of other diacritics should be considered optional as long as their use or non-use is applied consistently (either â, ă, ê, o’ and u’ or a, a, e, o, u).

Transcriptions of names, phrases and words from languages that use non-Roman scripts should be individual or idiosyncratic only in the case of:

  • major place-names with standard English versions, e.g. Seoul, Delhi, Rangoon, Bangkok in preference to Soul, Dilli, Yangon, Krungthep;
  • company names that are internationally known or which customarily use their own romanisation, e.g. Hyundai, Daewoo in preference to Hyondae, Taeu;
  • names of certain figures. Name transcription is particularly thorny to the prevalence of idiosyncratic romanisations used by individuals for their own names, and, in the case of Chinese, romanisations according to Cantonese, Hokkien or other dialects. The following are broad recommendations: the case of Chinese outside the PRC (in which case idiosyncratic, personal or dialect-based transcriptions are very common), use the romanisations that the particular individual him/herself uses where these are known. Otherwise use Pinyin; the case of academics and writers of any East Asian nationality that publish in English, to use the transcription of his/her name under which he/she is published; all other cases, use idiosyncratic romanisations only in very common and internationally excepted names, such as Syngman Rhee for I Sungman, Roh Tae-woo for No Taeu.
Otherwise, transcription should be in accordance with the general principles for transcribing such languages, and usage should be consistent throughout a paper. Diacritics should normally not be used, except to clarify a linguistically relevant point. Words and phrases other than names should be italicised.

  • For Chinese - both with regard to the PRC and to Taiwan, Singapore etc. - the Pinyin system should be used in preference to the Wade-Giles or Gwoyeu Romatzyh. The only diacritic that should be used is ü where appropriate; tones should not be represented unless necessary.
  • For Korean, the McCune-Reischauer system should be used, without macrons, i.e. o and u in preference to o and u or eo and eu.
  • For Japanese, the Hepburn system is recommended without macrons for vowel length, i.e. o and u in preference to o and u or oo and uu. However, the use of macrons will be allowed if the author accepts responsibility for proofreading.

    Chicago Manual of Style, Ch 15