Manuscript style guidelines

We prefer lively prose and creative use of language, and clear phraseology with direct tenses. In addition:

  • Quotations should be within single quotation marks. When quoting within quotations, please use double quotes.
  • Latin translations should always have single quotation marks around them. Latin quotes and translations should not be italicized unless they appear within italicized text.
  • Long quotations of five or more lines should be indented and single-spaced without quotation marks.
  • Numbers 10 and higher should be in figures. Numbers lower than 10 should be spelt out in the text except when associated with a unit or period of time (‘9 meters’, ‘9 minutes’), when spanning a range (‘9 to 10’, not ‘nine to ten’, nor ‘9 to ten’), or in percentages (‘9%’).
  • Dates should be in the form of 5 September, 1990; 1994-1998; or, the 1990s.

Reference format

postmedieval uses the Chicago Author-Date style, with in-text references and an alphabetical reference list at the end.

Please refer to the “Author-Date Citations and Reference Lists” described in Chapter 16 of The Chicago Manual of Style. Some examples are given below.

References in the Text

In the text, use the last name(s) of the author(s) (without first name initials, unless there are two authors in your reference list with the same name) and year of publication. For in-text citations, insert the author name and date in parenthesis before the final punctuation.


…(Allatson, 2007).
Where possible, please include the specific page number(s). Insert a comma between the date and the page number(s).


… (Mendoza, 2006, 15). Or, (Mendoza, 2006, 15-23).
Unpublished data and personal communications should include initials, last name, and year. Publications which have not yet appeared are given a probable year of publication.


More recently, various scholars have discussed both the importance and the pitfalls of interracial collaboration (Capetillo-Ponce, 2009, 56; Betancur et al., 1999). Still others (G. Candelario, 2008, personal communication) suggest…

Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be identified by adding a, b, c (e.g. 1984a, 2009b) to the year. If there are two authors for a publication, use both names separated by “and” (not “&”). If there are more than two authors, put the name of the first author followed by et al.
For internet citations, include the author’s last name and year in text; full citation should be placed in the references, including full URL, according to the example below under “List of References.”

List of References

References are placed in alphabetical order of authors’ last names. Place of publication should include the U.S. state or the country that the city is in. Only New York and London do not need this treatment. The following are examples of correct forms of references:


Hernández, R. 2002. The Mobility of Workers Under Advanced Capitalism: Dominican Migration to the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dalleo, R., and E. Machado Sáez. 2007. The Latino/a Canon and the Emergence of Post-Sixties Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Edited collection:

Gutiérrez, D.G., ed. 2006. The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960. New York: Columbia University Press.
Garcia, L.E., S.M. Gutierrez, and F. Nuñez, eds. 2008. Teatro Chicana: A Collective Memoir and Selected Plays. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Chapter in book:

Coutin, S.B. 2005. The Formation and Transformation of Central American Community Organizations in Los Angeles. In Latino Los Angeles: Transformations, Communities, and Activism, eds. G. Ochoa and E. Ochoa, 155-177. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Chapter in edited collection:

Rivera, R.Z. 2007. Between Blackness and Latinidad in the Hip Hop Zone. In A Companion to Latino Studies, 351-362, ed. R. Rosaldo and J. Flores. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Journal article:

Hernandez, D. 2008. Pursuant to Deportation: Immigrant Detention and Latinos. Latino Studies 6:35–63.
Online only / advance online journal article:
Hernandez, D. 2008. Pursuant to Deportation: Immigrant Detention and Latinos. Latino Studies, advance online publication 28 November, doi: 10.1057/palgrave.lst.2602476.

Conference paper:

Rodríguez-Muñiz, M. 2008. Rearticulating Latinidad: Puerto Rican Solidarity in the Immigration Rights Movement. Paper presented at the Puerto Rican Studies Association Conference: Cartographies of Identities: Puerto Rico(ans) in the XXIst Century. San Juan, Puerto Rico: 1-4 October.


Pérez, G.M. 2000. The Near Northwest Side Story: Gender, Migration, and Everyday Life in Chicago and San Sebastián, Puerto Rico. Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University.

Government documents:

President's Commission on Migratory Labor. 1951. Migratory Labor in American Agriculture. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
United States, Congress, Senate. 1954. Agricultural Workers from Mexico, Congressional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 83rd Congress, Second Session, Volume 100, Part 2. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

Newspaper article:

Hill, G. 1951. Million a Year Flee Mexico Only to Find Peonage Here. The New York Times, 25 March: 1.
Manifestación Independentista Borinqueña. 1935. La Prensa, 3 September.

Internet Citations:

Breeze, J. 2009b. The Wife of Bath Speaks in Brixton Market. Video,
Palgrave, F.T. [1861] 2006. Golden Treasury of the Best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language. Project Gutenberg EBook,


postmedievalalso publishes ‘side notes’, for short parenthetical observations. The side notes are published on the outside margins of the page, alongside the article, rather than as footnotes at the bottom of the page or as endnotes at the end of the article.

In order to keep side notes from becoming running columns on the side of the article text, we ask that authors keep all notes as brief as possible. Each one should not be longer than 50 words. Please place author-date references within the article, according to the style set out above, and use notes only to elaborate briefly on a particular point.

In your manuscript submission, show side notes as endnotes rather than footnotes. Please do not use the footnote/endnote macro in MS Word, as this formatting is lost in the typesetting process.