All manuscripts should be submitted in electronic form as a Word compatible file. As the journal operates a blind-review policy author names should be listed only on the cover sheet of the manuscript and user names should be removed from 'Tools', 'Options', 'User information' in Word.

For more information on how to submit your paper through our submission system please click here

General style

All manuscripts should be in English, 12 point font Times New Roman, double line spaced and submitted in MS Word or a compatible software file. Authors should be consistent in their use of either UK or US English in regard to orthography, punctuation and related style. To enable indexing, three to five keywords should be provided after the article title and an abstract provided on a separate page. A cover sheet should detail the author's full postal and email addresses as well as telephone and fax numbers. The abstract page should contain only the title of the article and a 40–100 word abstract. Please take care to craft a title and an abstract that are direct and 'reader-friendly'; furthermore, in line with good academic practice, it is recommended that abstracts should not merely re-duplicate portions of the text. Titles should be short, and abstracts should be informative for non-specialists.


Please do not use footnotes. Endnotes should be used only where absolutely necessary and should be kept to a minimum. Please indicate notes in the article text with superscript numbers, and provide the notes themselves as text situated between the end of the article and the beginning of the bibliography. Please do not use the foot/endnote macro in MS Word as these data are lost in the production process.

Please ensure that automatic hyphenation is turned off in your word processing package. The final version of your submitted article should not include hyphenation to split words over line breaks.

References in the text

The whole citation should follow the Harvard style, enclosed within parentheses (author surname, year) if not a natural part of the surrounding sentence; the year should be enclosed within parentheses if the names do form a natural part of the surrounding sentence. Citations of works by two authors should have ‘and’ (not an ampersand) between the names. Citations of works by three or more authors should have the first author followed by et al. in italics.

Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be identified with a, b, c (e.g. 2008a, 2008b) closed up to the year.

Personal communications should be listed as such where they are cited in the text, and not listed in the references.


Since Paterson (1983) has shown that… This is in results attained later (Kramer, 1984). Results have been reported (Don Graham, 1989, personal communication).

Articles not yet published should show ‘forthcoming’ in place of the year (in both the reference and the citation). ‘In press’ should be used in place of the volume, issue and page range details.


Sharp Parker, A.M. (forthcoming) Cyberterrorism: An examination of the preparedness of the North Carolina local law enforcement. Security Journal, in press.

List of References

References are placed in alphabetical order of authors. Examples of correct forms of references for alphabetical style:


Slovic, P. (2000) The Perception of Risk. London: Earthscan Publications.

Edited volume

Nye Jr, J.S., Zelikow, P.D. and King D.C. (eds.) (1997) Why People Don’t Trust Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Chapter in book

Flora, P. and Alber, J. (1981) Modernization, democratization, and the development of the welfare state. In: P. Flora and A.J. Heidenheimer (eds.) The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Books, pp. 17–34.

Article in journal

Thompson, K., Griffith, E. and Leaf, P. (1990) A historical review of the Madison model of community care. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41(6): 21–35.

Article in newspaper

Webster, B. (2008) Record bonus for Network Rail chief, despite Christmas chaos. The Times, 6 June, p.1.

Newspaper or magazine article (without a named author)
Economist (2005) The mountain man and the surgeon. 24 December, pp. 24–26.

Article online

Gardener, T. and Moffatt, J. (2007) Changing behaviours in defence acquisition: A game theory approach. Journal of the Operational Research Society, advance online publication 28 November, doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602476.

Other online resource

Green Party (2005) Greens call for attack on asylum ‘push factors’. Green Party report, 4 March., accessed 9 March 2005.

Conference proceedings

Sapin, A. (ed.) (1985) Health and the Environment. Proceedings of the Conference on Biological Monitoring Methods for Industrial Chemicals, 30–31 March 1984, Chicago, IL. Chicago: American Toxological Association.

Conference paper

Harley, N.H. (1981) Radon risk models. In: A.R. Knight and B. Harrad (eds.) Indoor Air and Human Health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium, 29–31 October, Knoxville, TN. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 69–78.

Papers/talks presented at a conference but not published

Martin, S. (2003) An exploration of factors which have an impact on the vocal performance and vocal effectiveness of newly qualified teachers and lecturers. Paper presented at the Pan European Voice Conference, 31 August, Graz, Austria.


Young, W.R. (1981) Effects of different tree species on soil properties in central New York. MSc thesis. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Research papers/reports/working papers

Bloom, G. et al. (2005) Poverty reduction during democratic transition: The Malawi Social Action Fund 1996-2001. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. IDS Research Report no. 56.


Bond, S. A., Hwang, S., Lin, Z. and Vandell, K. (2005) Marketing period risk in a portfolio context: theory and empirical estimates from the UK commercial real estate market. Cambridge, UK: Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge (mimeo).


Blair, A. (2003) Britain in the world. Speech to FCO Leadership Conference. London, 7 January.


E.g. Vamik’s Room (2016, 70m, dir. Molly Castelloe)

References to Freud's work

References to Freud's work should be to the English translation of the Standard Edition of the Complete Works and be given in the following format:
Freud, S. (1909/1955) Analysis of a phobia in a five-year old boy. Standard Edition 10. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 3-149.

The earlier date is the date of original publication; the latter date is the SE date of publication.


Lacan, J. (2002) Introduction to Jean Hyppolite’s commentary on Freud’s ‘Verneinung’. In: Ecrits. Translated by B. Fink. New York: Norton, pp. 318-333.

Lacan, J. (1991/2007) The Other Side of Psychoanalysis: The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book XVII. Translated by R. Grigg. New York: W.W. Norton.


Please use either UK or US spellings consistently throughout the text. For UK spellings follow the Concise Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. Use Webster's Collegiate for US spellings. US spellings will prefer '-ize' to '-ise' as a verb ending.