Style Guidelines - Quote Marks and Italics
Our policy for the use of quote marks and italics is as follows:
- Double quote marks (“ ...”) are to be used for direct quotations (from articles/ interviews etc), chapter titles and article names.
- Single quote marks (‘...’) are for ‘scare’ quotes (for example to draw attention to an unusual or arguably inaccurate use of a word or phrase) and for when quoting within direct quotations only.
- Long quotations should be indented and without quotation marks.
- Italics are for use for emphasis, book names, journal titles and newspapers only.
Keep textual notes to a minimum, indicate them with superscript numbers, and provide the note text as a list at the end of the article before the references. Please do not use footnotes.
References in the text
The whole citation should follow the Harvard style, enclosed within parentheses (author surname, year) if not a natural part of the surrounding sentence; the year should be enclosed within parentheses if the names do form a natural part of the surrounding sentence. Citations of works by two authors should have ‘and’ (not an ampersand) between the names. Citations of works by three or more authors should have the first author followed by et al in italics with no trailing stop.
Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be identified with a, b, c (e.g. 2008a, 2008b) closed up to the year.
Personal communications should be listed as such where they are cited in the text, and not listed in the references.
Since Paterson (1983) has shown that… This is in results attained later (Kramer, 1984). Results have been reported (Don Graham, 1989, personal communication).
Articles not yet published should show ‘forthcoming’ in place of the year (in both the reference and the citation). ‘In press’ should be used in place of the volume, issue and page range details.
Sharp Parker, A.M. (forthcoming) Cyberterrorism: An examination of the preparedness of the North Carolina local law enforcement. Security Journal, in press.
References are placed in alphabetical order of authors. Users of Endnote referencing software can download an Endnote style file at the link below. Examples of correct forms of references for alphabetical style:
Slovic, P. (2000) The Perception of Risk. London: Earthscan Publications.
Nye Jr, J.S., Zelikow, P.D. and King D.C. (eds.) (1997) Why People Don’t Trust Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Chapter in book
Flora, P. and Alber, J. (1981) Modernization, democratization, and the development of the welfare state. In: P. Flora and A.J. Heidenheimer (eds.) The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Books, pp. 17–34.
Article in journal
Thompson, K., Griffith, E. and Leaf, P. (1990) A historical review of the Madison model of community care. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41(6): 21–35.
Article in newspaper
Webster, B. (2008) Record bonus for Network Rail chief, despite Christmas chaos. The Times, 6 June: p1.
Newspaper or magazine article (without a named author)
Economist (2005) The mountain man and the surgeon. 24 December, pp. 24–26.
Wilson, D. (2010) Creating the ‘ethics industry’: Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain, BioSocieties advance online publication, November 29, 2010; doi:10.1057/biosoc.2010.26
Other online resource
Green Party. (2005) Greens call for attack on asylum ‘push factors’. Green Party report, 4 March, http://www.greenparty.org.uk/index.php?nav=new&n=1838, accessed 9 March 2005.
Sapin, A. (ed.) (1985) Health and the Environment. Proceedings of the Conference on Biological Monitoring Methods for Industrial Chemicals; 30–31 March 1984, Chicago, IL. Chicago: American Toxological Association.
Harley, N.H. (1981) Radon risk models. In: A.R. Knight and B. Harrad, (eds.) Indoor Air and Human Health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 29–31 October, Knoxville, TN. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp.69–78.
Papers/talks presented at a conference but not published
Martin, S. (2003) An exploration of factors which have an impact on the vocal performance and vocal effectiveness of newly qualified teachers and lecturers. Paper presented at the Pan European Voice Conference; 31 August, Graz, Austria.
Young, W.R. (1981) Effects of different tree species on soil properties in central New York. MSc thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Research papers/reports/working papers
Bloom., G. et al (2005) Poverty Reduction During Democratic Transition: The Malawi Social Action Fund 1996-2001. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. IDS Research Report no. 56.
Bond, S. A., Hwang, S., Lin, Z. and Vandell, K. (2005) Marketing Period Risk in a Portfolio Context: Theory and Empirical Estimates from the UK Commercial Real Estate Market. Cambridge, UK: Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge (mimeo).
Blair, A. (2003) Britain in the World. Speech to FCO Leadership Conference. London, 7 January.