Manuscript format and style guide

When the Editors send manuscripts for external review, they are double-blind reviewed. Thus, please ensure that no authors names are given on the first page of the manuscript and that author names have been taken out of the "File-Properties" screen in Word.

All manuscripts should be double-spaced. Margins should be one inch (2.5cm) at the top, bottom and sides of the page. Font size should be 12 point or larger. We ask that submissions be limited to 4000 words of text and references, unless an exception has been granted based on discussion with the Editors in advance of submission. This recommended word count refers to the entire content of the article, including abstract and references. Articles with heavy use of figures and/or tables should be correspondingly shorter to compensate for these. Please contact the Editors at We give preference to shorter pieces.

In general, the Editors solicit commentaries, book reviews, and other feature articles. We do, however, welcome written inquiries about material that might be appropriate for the Journal. Please contact the Editors at We welcome short, unsolicited letters to consider for publication.

Title page

The title page should list the title of the article and suggestions for a short running title of no more than 40 characters (including spaces). Also include the authors names, affiliations and contact details (including email address) for the corresponding author.


Authors are asked to supply an unstructured abstract of no more than 150 words. Abstracts should be informative for non-specialists.

Please be sure that the abstract page does not contain any information identifying the author(s). Also, please take care to create a title and an abstract that are direct and ‘reader-friendly’.


Include up to six keywords that describe your paper for indexing and for web searches of your manuscript.

Active not Passive Voice

Our readers want to know and therefore, JPHP style requires that authors, thoughout the article, including the abstract, tell who has made decisions or taken actions by using the active voice (‘The research team decided’ or ‘The Department of Health implemented…’), and avoiding the passive voice (‘It was decided…’ or ‘The policy was implemented…’). Be sure to state by whom any action was taken or decision made.


The introduction should state clearly the objective of the paper as well as the context of the research or analysis. A literature review should inform readers where the JPHP author's new material fits in the evolution of the topic being addressed. The conclusion should summarize key findings and state their importance to the field, including implications for policy or future research. Endnotes must provide the references crucial for placing the new contribution in the field, but should not include any that are not essential for that purpose. All endnotes and references should be placed at the end of the manuscript in endnotes in the form specified below. Substantive comments, including references to “personal communications” or other items that do not fit within the reference style noted below should be integrated within the text. No substantive information should be included in the references or as independent endnotes. JPHP does not use footnotes for references or for substantive notes.

References in the text

The citations should follow the Vancouver system, marked by a superscript number, closed up to the preceding text, but outside any punctuation that is part of the surrounding sentence. Pairs of citations should be separated with an unspaced comma, thus,1,2 and ranges of citations with an en rule, thus.3–5
Personal communications should be listed as such where they are cited in the text, and not listed in the references.


Results have been reported (Don Graham, 1989, personal communication).

Articles not yet published should show ‘forthcoming’ in place of the year (in both the reference and the citation).

‘In press’ should be used in place of the volume, issue and page range details.


1.Sharp Parker, A.M. (forthcoming) Cyberterrorism: An examination of the preparedness of the North Carolina local law enforcement. Security Journal, in press.

List of References

References are placed in a consecutive numerical list at the end of the paper. The sequence follows the order of first-citation in the text. References cited only in tables or captions are placed in the sequence according to the first reference in the text to that table or figure. When a work is cited more than once, the number of the original reference should be repeated (not new numbers generating extra items in the reference list cross-referring back to the original).

Examples of correct forms of references for numerical style:


1. Slovic, P. (2000) The Perception of Risk. London: Earthscan Publications.

Edited volume

2. Nye Jr, J.S., Zelikow, P.D. and King D.C. (eds.) (1997) Why People Don’t Trust Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Chapter in book

3. Flora, P. and Alber, J. (1981) Modernization, democratization, and the development of the welfare state. In: P. Flora and A.J. Heidenheimer (eds.) The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Books, pp. 17–34.

Article in journal

4. Thompson, K., Griffith, E. and Leaf, P. (1990) A historical review of the Madison model of community care. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41(6): 21–35.

Article in newspaper

5. Webster, B. (2008) Record bonus for Network Rail chief, despite Christmas chaos. The Times, 6 June: p1.
Newspaper or magazine article (without a named author)
14. Economist (2005) The mountain man and the surgeon. 24 December, pp. 24–26.

Article online

6. Gardener, T. and Moffatt, J. (2007) Changing behaviours in defence acquisition: a game theory approach. Journal of the Operational Research Society, advance online publication 28 November, doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602476.

Other online resource

7. Green Party. (2005) Greens call for attack on asylum ‘push factors’. Green Party report, 4 March,, accessed 9 March 2005.

Conference proceedings

8. Sapin, A. (ed.) (1985) Health and the Environment. Proceedings of the Conference on Biological Monitoring Methods for Industrial Chemicals; 30–31 March 1984, Chicago, IL. Chicago: American Toxological Association.

Conference paper

9. Harley, N.H. (1981) Radon risk models. In: A.R. Knight and B. Harrad, (eds.) Indoor Air and Human Health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 29–31 October, Knoxville, TN. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp.69–78.

Papers/talks presented at a conference but not published

10. Martin, S. (2003) An exploration of factors which have an impact on the vocal performance and vocal effectiveness of newly qualified teachers and lecturers. Paper presented at the Pan European Voice Conference; 31 August, Graz, Austria.


11. Young, W.R. (1981) Effects of different tree species on soil properties in central New York. MSc thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Research papers/reports/working papers

12. Bloom., G. et al (2005) Poverty Reduction During Democratic Transition: The Malawi Social Action Fund 1996-2001. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. IDS Research Report no. 56.


13.Bond, S. A., Hwang, S., Lin, Z. and Vandell, K. (2005) Marketing Period Risk in a Portfolio Context: Theory and Empirical Estimates from the UK Commercial Real Estate Market. Cambridge, UK: Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge (mimeo).


15. Blair, A. (2003) Britain in the World. Speech to FCO Leadership Conference. London, 7 January.


Use either US or UK spellings consistently throughout. For UK spellings, take as a guide the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors; Websters Collegiate for US spellings. UK spellings will therefore prefer '-ize' to '-ise', as a verb ending (e.g. realize, specialize, recognize, etc.).