Manuscript format and style guide

Articles should be in English, typed double-spaced with generous margins (at least 1"/2.5 cm). They should not normally exceed 7,000 words; notes and bibliography should be presented separately.

Diagrams and tables should be presented on separate pages, clearly labelled with the author's name, and numbered; their respective positions should be included in the text.

On acceptance of an article authors are requested to send an electronic version of their article, preferably as a Word file.


Keep textual notes to a minimum, indicate them with superscript numbers, and provide the note text as a list at the end of the article before the references.


Use either UK or US spellings consistently throughout. For UK spellings, take as a guide the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors; Websters Collegiate for US spellings. UK spellings will prefer '-ize' to '-ise', as a verb ending (e.g. realize, specialize, recognize etc.).

References in the text

In the text, refer to the author(s) name(s) (without initials, unless there are two authors with the same name) and year of publication in parentheses. If several papers by the same author and from the same year are cited, a. b. c, etc., should be put after the year of publication. Unpublished data and personal communications should include initials and year. Publications which have not yet appeared are to be avoided. If used, they are to be given a probable year of publication and should be checked at proof stage on the author query sheet.


Since Patterson (1983) has shown that... This is in results attained later (Kramer, 1984, 16). Results have been reported (Robinson, 1989, personal communication) which suggest...

Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be identified with a, b, c (e.g. 1974a, 1990b) closed up to the year. If there are two authors for a publication, put both names separated by 'and' (not &). If there are more than two authors, put the name of the first author followed by et al. References to material on the internet must be given in brackets in the text, not in the reference list. The full URL must be given.

List of references

References are placed in alphabetical order of authors. Examples of correct forms of references in alphabetical style:

For journal articles:

Chilstrom, G.A. (1984) 'Psychological aspects of the nuclear arms race', Journal of Humanistic Psychology 24(3): 39-54.

For online articles:

Kwikkers, P. and van Wageningen, A. (2012) ‘A Space for the European Higher Education Area: The Guidance from the EU Court of Justice to Member States’, Higher Education Policy advance online publication February 16. doi:10.1057/hep.2011.22.

For books:

Bracken, P.J. (1983) The Command and Control of Nuclear Forces, New Haven: Yale University Press.

For chapters within books:

Hook, G.D. (1998) 'Japanese Business in Triadic Globalization', in H. Hasegawa and G.D. Hook (eds). Japanese Business Management: Restructuring for Low Growth and Globalization, London: Routledge, pp. 19-38.

Conference paper:

Harley, N.H. (1981) 'Radon risk models', in A.R. Knight and B. Harrad (eds.) Indoor Air and Human Health, Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 29-31 October 1981; Knoxville, USA. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 69-78.

Papers/Talks presented at a Conference but not published:

Martin, S. (2003) An exploration of factors which have an impact on the vocal performance and vocal effectiveness of newly qualified teachers and lecturers. Paper presented at the Pan European Voice Conference; 31 August, Graz, Austria.

Research papers/reports, working papers, etc:

Bloom, G. (2005) Poverty Reduction during Democratic Transition: The Malawi Social Action Fund 1996-2001. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. IDS Research Report no. 56.

Online resources/webpages:

Green Party (2005) Greens call for attack on asylum ‘push factors’. Green Party report, 4 March,, accessed 9 March 2005.


Zito, A. (1994) 'Epistemic communities in European policy-making', PhD dissertation, Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh.

News paper article:

Barber, L. (1993) 'The towering bureaucracy', Financial Times, 21 June.

Titles of the journals should not be abbreviated.