Presentation and Formatting

General Style

Digital War uses the Harvard referencing system

Presentation of the paper


Keep textual notes to a minimum, indicate them with superscript numbers, and provide the note text at the bottom of the corresponding page.

References in the text

The whole citation should follow the Harvard style, enclosed within parentheses (author surname, year) if not a natural part of the surrounding sentence; the year should be enclosed within parentheses if the names do form a natural part of the surrounding sentence. Citations of works by two authors should have ‘and’ (not an ampersand) between the names. Citations of works by three or more authors should have the first author followed by et al in italics with no trailing stop.

Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be identified with a, b, c (e.g. 2019a, 2019b) closed up to the year.

In text examples

Winter (2017) identifies two key shifts in the representation of war from the Great War through to the 21st century.

Often overlooked is how, ‘organisational memory directly and indirectly shapes the military’s capacity to learn, adapt, and to be more effective in combat’ (Hoskins and Ford 2017, 121).

Levine (2019, 183) calls out this relationship, ‘Spend time listening to and reading the words of Google executives, and you quickly realize they see no hard line separating government and Google’.

List of References

References are placed in alphabetical order of authors.



Azoulay, Ariella. 2008. The Civil Contract of Photography. New York: Zone Books.

Edited book

Rutten, Ellen, Fedor, Julie and Zvereva, Vera. eds. 2013. Memory, Conflict and New Media: Web wars in post-socialist states. London: Routledge.


Gregory, Derek, J. 2018. Eyes in the sky, bodies on the ground. Critical Studies in Security 6(1): 1-12.

Chapter in book

Hoskins, Andrew. 2014. A New Memory of War. In Zelizer, Barbie and Tenenboim-Weinblatt, Keren. eds. Journalism and Memory. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.179-192.

News article

Murphy, Hannah. 2019. Inside Facebook’s information warfare team. Financial Times, 6 July.

Use either UK or US spellings consistently throughout. For UK spellings, take as a guide the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors; Websters Collegiate for US spellings. US spellings will therefore prefer '-ize' to '-ise', as a verb ending (e.g. realize, specialize, recognize, etc.).

Artwork Guidelines